Technical Info

Surgical Grade Tantalum

Specifications of Tantalum for Surgical Implants

Surgical  grade (medical grade) tantalum – i.e. tantalum used in medical devices, are specified in a number of standards like:

  • ASTM F560: Standard Specification for Unalloyed Tantalum for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R05200, UNS R05400)
  • ISO 13782: Implants for surgery — Metallic materials — Unalloyed tantalum for surgical implant applications.
  • BS 7252-13: Implants for surgery — Metallic materials — Unalloyed tantalum for surgical implant applications

where the British surgery standard BS 7252-13 is identical to the ISO 13782 standard.

The standards specify the chemical, mechanical, and metallurgical requirements for unalloyed tantalum used in orthopaedic surgery or in the manufacture of surgical implants. The material specification in the standards are substantially similar.

Surgical Grade Tantalum Base Forms

A number of  base forms are covered by the ASTM F560 standard.

ASTM F560 differentiates surgical grade tantalum products in the following way:

Tantalum plate for surgery are defined a flat product more than 0.1875 in. (4.7 mm) in thickness.
Surgical Tantalum sheet are flat products less than 0.1875 in. (4.7 mm) in thickness and more than 6 in. (152.4 mm) wide.
Tantalum strip is a flat product less than 0.1875 in. (4.7 mm) in thickness less than 6 (152.4 mm) in. wide.
Tantalum rod for surgery is defined as a material with a diameter between 0.125 to 2.5 in. (3.18 to 63.50 mm) supplied in straight lengths (round, hexagonal, or octagonal cross section). Commenly however the expression “rod” is used for straithened tantalum wire also below 0.125 in. / 3.18 mm. X-medics offer tantalum rod products as small as 0.500 mm
Implantable Tantalum wire is defined as material up to 0.125″ (3.15 mm) in diameter

Basic Surgical Tantalum Material Grades (R05200 vs R05400)

The ASTM F560 , ISO 13782 and BS 7252-13 specify two acceptable base grades of surgical tantalum:

Type R05200: unalloyed tantalum vacuum-arc melted or electron-beam melted ingots.
Type R05400: powder-metallurgy consolidated unalloyed tantalum.

There are no difference in the mechanical requirements of surgical grade tantalum type R05200 and R05400.  Concerning the chemical composition  of the tantalum slight higher oxygen and hydrogen levels accepted in R05400 surgical grade tantalum compred to R05200 as can be seen below.

Chemical Composition Requirement of Surgical Grade Tantalum

The requirements to the chemical composition of surgical grade tantalum are considered fulfilled if the chemical analysis of the Ingot material fulfills the requirements. There are slightly differences in the acceptance criteria for R05200 and R05400 tantalum grades as can be seen below.

ElementR05200 *R05400 **
max % (m/m)max % (m/m)
Carbon0.0100.010
Oxygen0.0150.03
Nitrogen0.0100.010
Hydrogen0.00150.0015
Niobium0.100.10
Iron0.0100.010
Titanium0.0100.010
Tungsten0.0500.050
Molybdenum0.0200.020
Silicon0.0050.005
Nickel0.0100.010
Tantalumbalance***balance***

*) Electron-beam or vacuum-arc cast tantalum.
**) Sintered tantalum.
***) The percentage of tantalum is determined by difference and need not be determined or certified.

When supplying surgicalk tantalum R05200 or R05400, the supplier shall provide a certification that the material was tested in accordance with the specification and met all requirements. A report of the test results shall be furnished to the purchaser at the time of shipment.

Chemical Composition additional Requirements

In addition to the requirements above the purchaser may request a report certifying the values of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen as specified below for each lot of material supplied.

ElementR05200 *R05400 **
max % (m/m)max % (m/m)
Carbon0.0200.020
Oxygen0.0250.035
Nitrogen0.0100.010
Hydrogen0.00150.0015

*) Electron-beam or vacuum-arc cast tantalum.
**) Sintered tantalum.

Mechanical properties of Surgical Grade Tantalum

The mechanical properties of the materials are to be evaluated as tensile strength and elongation. The specific parameter and test method depends on the form of tantalum metal (wire, strip, plate etc.) and can be found in the standards.

Tantalum Biocompatibility

The Biocompatibility of Tantalum

Robert J Hartlings conclusion in this article:

“The information available indicates tantalum is highly resistant to chemical attack and arouses very little adverse biological response in either the reduced or oxidised forms. Many studies demonstrate excellent biocompatibility in a variety of situations including, those applications involving bone surgery.”

Tantalum has been widely used in clinical applications for more than 50 years:

• as a radiographic marker for diagnostic purposes, due its high density
• as the material of choice for permanent implantation in bone, as osteomigration prevents migration
• as vascular clips, with the particular advantage that since tantalum is not ferromagnetic it is highly suited to MRI scanning
• in the repair of cranial defects – a United States of America medical material standard exists for tantalum in this application
• as a flexible stent to prevent arterial collapse
• as a stent to treat biliary and arteriovenous (haemodialyzer) fistular stenosis
• in fracture repair
• in dental applications
• in other miscellaneous applications

The Biocompatibility of Tantalum

by Robert J Harling
BSc(Hons) CBiol, MIBiol, DipRCPath, MRCPath, Eurotox Registered Toxicologist; April 2002

The Report is reprinted with permission and thanks to Danfoss Tantalum Technologies

INTRODUCTION

This document reviews literature that presents information pertinent to the issue of tantalum’s biocompatibility. The information comes from the scientific literature, from extraction studies undertaken by Danfoss Technology Centre, and surface evaluation studies undertaken by The Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.

SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

(i) Physical Properties

Tantalum and its alloys retain significant mechanical properties up to 1000 dg. C. Tantalum is chemically stable, oxidising in air at 300 dg. C, and it has excellent corrosion resistance, being attacked only by strong acids and alkalis which hydrolyze to form hydrofluoric acid.

Tantalum symbol Ta
Atomic Number 73
Mean Atomic Weight 180.95
Periodic Table Grouping VB together with vanadium and niobium
Density 16.6 g.cm3
Melting Point 3000 dg. C

Despite being a reactive metal, (by periodic table location), tantalum is considered to be a noble material in practical terms.

(ii) Material Response

There is little published data relative to in vitro studies to predict in vivo degradation. Tantalum is covered by a very low solubility tantalum oxide film, over a wide range of pH and pO2 combinations which are reflective of biological situations. The tantalum/tantalum oxide equilibrium reaction is impossible to characterise directly due to the protective power of the oxide. In vivo corrosion release is very slight, there being no reports indicating local, systemic or remote site concentrations related to corrosion release. The most usual observation in both animals and clinical reports is the absence of visible corrosion or corrosion products. In a specific biocompatibility study Watari et al studied tantalum after implantation in the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal region, and in the femoral bone marrow of rats for either 2 or 4 weeks.

No dissolution of the metal in soft tissues was detected using an x-ray scanning analytical microscope (XSAM), and no dissolution of the metal was detected in bone using electron probe microanalyzer elemental (EPMA) mapping procedures. The study concluded that tantalum had acceptable biocompatibility for use as a biomaterial. Where motion between implant and tissue are possible, then slight discolouration has been noted on some occasions. This is similar to the situation which occurs with titanium and titanium alloys, and is possible secondary to the removal of oxide particulates. Intake of tantalum and tantalum oxide produces very low levels of tantalum absorption from either the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems, again a reflection of the low solubility of the material. Tantalum clears promptly from lungs, airways and oesophagus in both animals and humans in the absence of respiratory disease.

(iii) Host response

Tantalum particles (10 to 50 micrometres) and pure titanium both cause no growth inhibition in human dermal fibroblast cultures. Other studies group tantalum with a number of other metals and alloys including stainless steel and pure titanium in relation to lack of biological effects. It is difficult to find standard data relating to the toxicological effects of tantalum. References indicate that there is no known human disease which is attributable to tantalum, that systemic poisonings in industrial situations are unknown, and that tantalum and tantalum compounds are not listed as presumptive or possible carcinogens. The oral LD50 for tantalum pentoxide in rats is quoted in one reference to be greater than 8 g/kg bodyweight. Where labelled tantalum has been injected into animal models only 15% is retained within the body, the balance being rapidly excreted. Forty percent of that which is retained within the body is retained within bone.

When tantalum is implanted as a foil, wire or mesh in soft tissues in either animals or humans, the main local tissue reponse is the formation of a thin, glistening membrane without any evidence of inflammation. This response has been characterised by loose and vascularised fibrous tissue with in some case the presence of an epithelium in contact with the implant. In work by Crochet et al an understanding of the pathological processes following implantation of tantalum stents into the femoral artery of sheep provides further evidence of the good biocompatibility displayed by tantalum based products. During the first four days after implantation a covering by non-organised throbi was noted. By fifteen days neointimal hyperplasia completely covered the stented arterial segment. This fibroblastic tissue showed no foreign body reaction. By 42 days collagen and myofibroblastic cells had progressively replaced the fibroblastic tissue indicative of a healing process. A similar reponse is seen with pure titanium, titanium alloys, zirconium, niobium and platinum upon implantation. In a specific biocompatibility study Watari et al studied tantalum after implantation in the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal region, and in the femoral bone marrow of rats for either 2 or 4 weeks. No inflammatory response was observed around the implants and all were encapsulated with thin fibrous connective tissue. The study concluded that tantalum has sufficient biocompatibility for use as a biomaterial.

Early studies did report abscesses following cerebral apposition of tantalum in humans, however, infection has to considered as a potential reason rather than a tissue reponse to the implanted material. In addition some of the early clinical studies have to be questioned due to the source, purity, pre-operative cleaning and sterilisation processes used for the implanted tantalum. When implanted as foil, wire, rod or ball there are several reports that tantalum can be osteo-integrated. That is, direct apposition of bone is seen against the implant without an intervening soft tissue layer or capsule. It has been suggested that the reason for this is that, like titanium, tantalum has an electrically non-conductive surface oxide which does not denature proteins and thus permits osteo-integration. Work supporting this concept is presented by Zitter et al who describe an in vitro system for measuring current densities of metals used in implants. These measurements produce results which are in good agreement with results from in vivo biocompatibility studies. In their studies pure metals like titanium, niobium and tantalum showed the lowest current density values which correlates with these materials having high biocompatibility. The reason quoted for these materials having low current densities is the presence of a stable oxide layer on the base metals. The stable oxide layer prevents an exchange of electrons and thus any redox reaction. Hence the materials are bio-inert. Bobyn et al (1) utilised cylindrical implants of tantalum which were 75 to 80% porous, in a 52 week dog study where they were implanted into the femur. Bone ingrowth was clearly demonstrated in the study with high fixation strength occurring at an earlier time point with the porous tantalum implants. The report provides no indication of any adverse reactions during the procedures utilised. Work with alkali and heat treated tantalum by Kato et al describes the bone-bonding ability of tantalum in rabbit studies, and no histological effects indicative of an adverse reaction to the implants were noted in their study. Bobyn et al (2) studies the osseous tissue reponse to an implanted tantalum biomaterial in dogs with bilateral hip arthroplasties. Good bone growth was seen with the porous tantalum and histopathological examination confirmed the biocompatibility of the implants. In vitro work by Sharma et al demonstrated that the presence of the oxide layer on tantalum enhances the adsorption of protein at the interface. A mixture of proteins was used in the studies and these included albumin, globulin and fibrinogen. Adsorption of proteins onto the surface, rather than protein denaturation, will be one of the reasons for good biocompatibility results with tantalum implants.

In several studies tantalum has been acknowledged as being bio-inert and as such has been selected as a negative control in certain experimental situations. For example, Miller et al utilised tantalum as a negative control in a study where rats with tantalum implants were sampled for urine and plasma, and the samples tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. All results were negative. Chronically implanted stimulating electrodes for neural prostheses are being developed to alleviate neural deficits. In comparative work by Johnson et al the use of tantalum-tantalum oxide electrodes was investigated in brain implantation studies with cats. When removed at the end of the study all electrodes were loosely encapsulated by a fibrous sheath of dura-archnoid connective tissue. There was no tissue adhering to the electrode surface. Histologically there was a slightly thickened pia with a slight reaction of the subpial neuroglia and no neuronal reaction or inflammatory reaction in the cortex. The study concluded that the tantalum-tantalum oxide electrodes resulted in less tissue damage than with electrodes made from rhodium, platinum or carbon, and tantalum-tantalum oxide electrodes did not result in neurotoxic effects.

(iv) Clinical responses

Tantalum has been widely used in clinical applications for more than 50 years:

• as a radiographic marker for diagnostic purposes, due its high density
• as the material of choice for permanent implantation in bone, as osteomigration prevents migration
• as vascular clips, with the particular advantage that since tantalum is not ferromagnetic it is highly suited to MRI scanning
• in the repair of cranial defects – a United States of America medical material standard exists for tantalum in this application
• as a flexible stent to prevent arterial collapse
• as a stent to treat biliary and arteriovenous (haemodialyzer) fistular stenosis
• in fracture repair
• in dental applications
• in other miscellaneous applications

Aronson et al undertook a specific study of tantalum markers in radiography with pin and spherical markers being implanted into bony and soft tissues of rabbits and children. No macroscopic reaction was noted around the markers, those implanted into bone were firmly fixed exhibiting close contact with adjacent bone lamellae. Microscopic examination in rabbits showed no reaction or slight fibrosis in bone, and slight fibrosis, but no or only a minimal inflammatory response after 6 weeks. In the children, no inflammatory reaction and only slight fibrosis was present up to 48 weeks after insertion. The bio-inertness of tantalum was commented on in the conclusion of the paper.

CONCLUSION

Information available indicates tantalum is highly resistant to chemical attack and arouses very little adverse biological response in either the reduced or oxidised forms. Many studies demonstrate excellent biocompatibility in a variety of situations including, those applications involving bone surgery. Metals coated with tantalum and tantalum itself release nothing into extraction media during standardised procedures, and the surface analysis shows low impurity profiles.

Providing the tantalum used in the manufacture of the proposed medical devices meets the purity criteria there is no reason to undertake further biocompatibility studies in animals.

This report prepared by: Date: April 2002

Robert J Harling
BSc(Hons) CBiol, MIBiol, DipRCPath, MRCPath, Eurotox Registered Toxicologist

REFERENCES

Aronson,A.S., Jonsson,N. and Alberius,P. Tantalum markers in radiography. Sleletal Radiol. 1985, 14, 207-211.

Birkemose,N-R. Extraction report J.No. 2001734. Danfoss Technology Centre Internal Report 2001.

Black,J. Biological performance of tantalum. Clinical Materials 1994, 16, 167-173.

Bobyn,J.D., Stackpool,G.J., Hacking,S.A., Tanzer,M. and Krygier,J.J. Characteristics of bone ingrowth and interface mechanics of a new porous tanatalum biomaterial. J. Bone and Joint Surgery 1999, 81-B, No.5. (referred in text as Bobyn(1)).

Bobyn,J.D., Toh,K-K, Hacking,S.A., Tanzer,M. and Krygier,J.J. Tissue response to porous tantalum acetabular cups. J. of Arthroplasty 1999, 14, No.3, 347-354. (referred in text as Bobyn(2)).

Crochet,D., Grossetete,R., Bach-Lijour,B., Sagan,C., Lecomte,E., Leurent,B., Brunel,P. and Le Nihouannen,J-C. Plasma treatment effects on the tantalum strecker stent implanted in femoral arteries of sheep. Cardiovasc. Intervent. Radiol. 1994, 17, 285-291.

Johnson,P.F., Bernstein,J.J., Hunter,G., Dawson,W.W. and Hench,L.L. An in vitro and in vivo analysis of anodized tantalum capacitive electrodes: corrosion response, physiology and histology. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1977, 11, 637-656.

Kato,H., Nakamura,T., Nishiguchi,S., Matsusue,Y., Kobayashi,M., Miyazaki,T., Kim,H-M. and Kokubo,T. Bonding of alkali- and heat-treated tantalum implants to bone. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 2000, 53, 28-35.

Matsuno,H., Yokoyama,A., Watari,F., Uo,M. and Kawasaki,T. Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of refractory metal implants, titanium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum and rhenium. Biomaterials 2001, 22, 1253-1262.

Miller,A.C., Fuciarelli,A.F., Jackson,W.E., Ejnik,E.J., Emond,C., Strocko,S., Hogan,J., Page,N. and Pellmar,T. Urinary and serum mutagenicity studies with rats implanted with depleted uranium or tantalum pellets. Mutagenesis 1998, 13, No.6, 643-648.

Sharma,C.P. and Paul,W. Protein interactionwith tantalum: changes with oxide layer and hydroxyapatite at the surface interface. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1992, 26, 1179-1184.

Wei,J. Analysis Report: ToF-SIMS characterisation of Ta samples. Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National Laboratory Project No: COMF/ 2001.

Zitter,H. and Plenk Jr,H. The electrochemical behaviour of metallic implant materials as an indicator of their biocompatibility. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 1987, 21, 881-896.

Conflict-Free Sourcing

X-medics policy concerning Conflict free sourcing and avoidance use of tantalum material with origin in conflict area

President Obama signed in July 2010 into law H.R. 4173, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. In addition to the financial regulatory reforms that constitute the primary focus of the legislation, the new law imposes requirements relating to “Conflict Minerals.” Specifically, Section 1502 of the Act imposes Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) reporting requirements upon U.S. companies if their products contain tin, tungsten, tantalum, or gold (commonly referred to as the 3TGs).

In relation to the law above X-medics has the following policy:

  • X-medics does not use tantalum minerals with origin in the DRC Congo or other conflict areas covered by the law.
  • X-medics demands from its suppliers of tantalum material to document that they actively try to avoid use of materials arising from such areas and as part X-medics supplier approval procedures.
  • X-medics suppliers can show evidence for activities that constantly ensure proper origin of the materials. Proper documentation includes 3rd party auditing by independent auditor review by Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition (www.eicc.info) or a similar recognized body.

 

Tantalum Machining

Machining of Tantalum – Technical Challenges

Machining of tantalum is difficult. It has been described as “kind of like machining copper with the hardness of titanium”1. Especially annealed tantalum may cause problems, being ‘sticky’, as well as having a strong tendency to seize, tear and gall2. Unannealed tantalum material is in general more suitable for machining than annealed. Medical grade tantalum is unalloyed and has a tendency to harden during processing and can be difficult to machine. Copper or soft aluminium would be good examples to compare it to 1,4. Lubrication is therefore essential to avoiding the development of too much heat during tantalum machining, as tantalum may ignite at elevated temperatures. Flaming during maching of tantalum should, however, not be an issue as long as the tantalum is well lubricated during the machining 1.

Lubrication of tantalum during machining
Lubrication medium is required when machining tantalum and the work must be well flooded at all times. Conventional coolant does not work1. Perchloroethylene 2, trichloroethane 2 or Moly-Dee 1 has been reported as suitable as a cutting medium for tantalum. WD-40 has been used but washes away quickly 1.

Turning tantalum
When maching  tantalum by turningit is generally recommended to use ceramic tooling, e.g. uncoated cemented carbide1-4. Very sharp inserts with a high positive (as much as possible) rake are suggested for turning1. Turning speeds in the range 100-175 SFM (surface feet per minute) have been reported suitable1-3. Slower speeds may cause tantalum to tear. Lubrication medium is required for turning tantalum and the work must be well flooded at all times. (See paragraph above).

Drilling tantalum
Drilling tantalum is in general difficult. A carbide drill at 80 SFM (0.025 pecks at 0.002 per rev) with Moly-Dee as lubricant has been reported suitable for drilling tantalum 1.

Grinding tantalum
Grinding tantalum has been reported to be extremely difficult and grinding annealed tantalum is almost impossible4. However, cold worked (unannealed) tantalum can be ground with limited success using aluminium oxide4. Lubrication medium is required for grinding tantalum (see paragraph on lubrication), as tantalum dust may have a risk of causing fire upon reaction with oxygen.


References
1) Integrex Machinist Forum: integrexmachinist.com
2) Espi Metals: www.espimetals.com
3) Thomas Net: www.thomasnet.com
4) Eagle Metals: www.eaglealloys.com

ISO 10993-5 Cytotoxicity Testing

ISO 10993-5 Cytotoxicity Testing of Tantalum Beads or Balls

X-medics tantalum beads are tested for cytotoxicity according to ISO 10093-5 (Biological evaluation of medical devices — Part 5: Tests for in vitro cytotoxicity) by an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory. The test is done to verify that no unwanted substances (e.g. process chemicals, cleaning agents, or others) remain in critical (cytotoxic) amounts after the tantalum balls have been processed, handled and cleaned/passivated.

During the cytotoxicity test a sample from the produced batch of tantalum beads (a few hundred to a few thousand, dependent on the ball size) are sterilized and the sample is extracted by a cell culture medium for a period of 72 hours. A positive (cytotoxic) control – polyvinyl chloride, PVC, and a negative (non-cytotoxic) control – polyethylene, PE, is also extracted by similar medium (for 24 h). The extracts and controls are diluted in 5 steps, cell suspension is added, and the extract/cell mixtures are incubated for 72 hours. After the incubation the number of cells are counted at the different concentrations and the cell proliferation inhibition of the solutions are calculated.

The product extract (and negative control of course) should not show a cell proliferation inhibition exceeding 30% that indicates a cytotoxic effect., whereas the positive control should have cell proliferation inhibition well above 30 %.

This video is a general demonstration of how a cytotoxicity test may be performed:
[youtube src=”http://www.youtube.com/embed/vn6enA6lSKs”]

ASTM F86 Cleaning/Passivation

X-medics’ tantalum beads are cleaned/passivated according to ASTM F86 (Standard Practice for Surface Preparation and Marking of Metallic Surgical Implants) by an ISO 13485 certified company located in Switzerland.

This treatment ensures that the tantalum beads are free from foreign metal particles, grease and other possible contaminants arising during manufacturing and processing.

The validated ASTM F86 cleaning procedure of the tantalum beads occurs in several steps:

  1. Pre-cleaning in hot alkaline solution
  2. Cold rinse in tap water
  3. Cold rinse in osmosis water
  4. Nitric acid passivation
  5. Acidic rinse
  6. Cold rinse in osmosis water
  7. Hot rinse in osmosis water
  8. Hot rinse in demineralised water
  9. Final hot rinse in demineralised water
  10. Drying in hot air stream

The alkaline cleaning removes grease, oil, dirt and other loose particles from the surface of the tantalum spheres.

Passivation in nitric acid removes embedded particles from production – typically iron filings from tooling (steel). The nitric acid dissolves iron particles selectively, as tantalum material is non-reactive with nitric acid.

Ultrasonic baths are used during the treatment to ensure efficient removal of particles from the surface of the tantalum balls.

Read more about ASTM F86: Standard Practice for Surface Preparation and Marking of Metallic Surgical Implants

See an automated cleaning / passivation process line here:
[youtube src=”http://www.youtube.com/embed/4mqyPWSEa60″]

3rd-Party Material Testing

X-medics uses independent ISO 17025 accredited laboratories for material testing of tantalum wire as well as all material used in fabrication tantalum beads / ball / spheres.  The independent material testing report is enclosed together with the certificate package supplied by x-medics.

The chemical analysis is performed to ensure that the tantalum materials fulfills the requirements in ASTM F560 / ISO 13782:

ElementR05200 *
max % (m/m)
R05400 **
max % (m/m)
Carbon0.0100.010
Oxygen0.0150.03
Nitrogen0.0100.010
Hydrogen0.00150.0015
Niobium0.100.10
Iron0.0100.010
Titanium0.0100.010
Tungsten0.0500.050
Molybdenum0.0200.020
Silicon0.0050.005
Nickel0.0100.010
Tantalumbalance***balance***

*) Electron-beam or vacuum-arc cast tantalum.
**) Sintered tantalum.
***) The percentage of tantalum is determined by difference and need not be determined or certified.

 

Carbon

Carbon is typically analysed using the Combustion Infrared Detection Method according to ASTM E1019. In this way, carbon presence from trace amounts less than 5 ppm can be detected.

 

Oxygen and nitrogen

Oxygen and nitrogen contents are typically determined by the Inert Gas Fusion Method according to ASTM E1019. This method shows trace amounts less than 5ppm.

 

Hydrogen

Hydrogen is typically determined by the Vacuum Hot Extraction method according to ASTM E146.

 

Iron

Iron is typically analysed by Atomic Absorption (AA) Spectroscopy as described in ASTM E699. Atomic Absorption provides accurate detection of trace metals.

 

Niobium, Titanium, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Silicon and Nickel  

These trace metals are typically determined by Direct Current Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (DCPES) according to ASTM E1097. DCPES is a versatile and efficient method for general testing of metallic content.

Tantalum Marker Solutions

Tantalum Marker Solutions

X-medics is a leading supplier of medical grade tantalum beads, tantalum balls, tantalum spheres and tantalum wire markers for improving x-ray radiopacity in implant applications.

  • Products on stock for instant shipping
  • Quality Management Certified: ISO 9001:2008 & ISO 13485:2003
  • Various medical grades available
  • Precision grades to choose from
  • All products shipped with laboratory analysis of chemical composition & physical dimensions

A Leading Supplier to the Medical Industry

  • 6 out of 10 leading implant companies purchase tantalum products from X-medics.

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