Literature on Tantalum RSA

Prostheses Fixation Studies

Hip

  1. Baldursson H, Egund N, Hansson L I, Selvik G. Instability and wear of total hip prostheses determined with roentgen-stereophotogrammetry. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1979;95(4):257-63.
  2. Baldursson H, Hansson L I, Olsson T H, Selvik G. Migration of the acetabular socket after total hip replacement determined by roentgen-stereophotogrammetry. Acta Orthop Scand  980;51(3):535-40.
  3. Borssén B, Snorrason F, Önsten I, Kärrholm J. Revision hip arthroplasty using cemented acetabular cup and allografts. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). SOF Trollhättan 1991. Acta Orthop Scand 1991;62(Suppl 246):9.
  4. Brodén C Olivecrona H Maguire G Noz M Zeleznik M Sköldenberg O. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study. Biomed Res Int 2016; 2016: 1-6
  5. Franzén H, Lidgren L, Toksvig-Larsen S, Önnerfält R. Early migration of femoral components revised with impacted cancellous allografts and cement. A preliminary report of five cases. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 1995;77(6):862-864.
  6. Franzén H, Mjöberg B. Wear and loosening of the hip prosthesis. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric 3-year study of 14 cases. Acta Orthop Scand 1990;61(6):499-501.
  7. Franzén H, Mjöberg B., Önnerfält. Early migration of acetabular components revised with cement: A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. Clin Orthop 1993; 287:131-4.
  8. Huiskes R, Verdonschot N, Nivbrant B. Migration stem shape and surface finish in cemented total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 1998 Oct;(355):103-12.
  9. Kärrholm J, Malchau H, Snorrason F, Herberts P. Femoral component fixation in total hip arthroplasty. Evaluation of contemporary cementing technique, porous and hydroxyapatite
    coatings using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Trans. 38th Annual Meeting of Orthopaedic Research Society. p.291 Washington 1992.
  10. Kadar T Hallan G Aamodt A Indrekvam K Badawy M Skredderstuen A Havelin L Stokke T Haugan K Espehaug B Furnes O. Wear and migration of highly cross-linked and conventional cemented polyethylene cups with cobalt chrome or Oxinium femoral heads: A randomized radiostereometric study of 150 patients. J. Orthop. Res. 2011;29(8): 1222-29.
  11. Kärrholm J, Snorrason F. Migration of porous coated acetabular prostheses fixed with screws. J Orthop Res. 1992;10:826-835.
  12. Kärrholm J, Snorrason F. Subsidence, tip and hump micromovements of non-coted ribbed femoral prostheses. Clin Orthop 1993;287:50-60.
  13. Kärrholm J, Borssén B, Löwenhielm G, Snorrason F. Do early micromotions of femoral stem prostheses matter? Stereoradiographic 5-8 year follow-up of 84 cemented hip prostheses. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 1994;76-B(6):912-917.
  14. Kärrholm J, Malchau H, Snorrason F, Herberts P. Micromotion of cemented, hydroxyapatite and porous coated femoral stems. Randomised study using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 1994;76-A(11):1691-1705.
  15. Kärrholm J, Anderberg C, Snorrason F, Thanner J, Langeland N, Malchau H,Herberts P. Evaluation of a femoral stem with reduced stiffness. A randomized study with use of radiostereometry and bone densitometry.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Sep;84-A(9):1651-8.
  16. Lawrie David F M, Downing Martin R, Ashcroft G Patrick, Gibson Peter H. Insertion of tantalum beads in RSA of the hip. Variations in incidence of extra-osseous beads with insertion site. Acta Orthop Scand 2003;74(4):404-407.
  17. Mjöberg B, Hansson L I, Selvik G. Instability, migration and laxity of total hip prostheses. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. Acta Orthop Scand. 1984;55:141-145.
  18. Mjöberg B. Loosening of the cemented hip prosthesis. The importance of heat injury. Acta Orthop Scand 1986;57(Suppl 221):1-40.
  19. Mjöberg B. Fixation and loosening of hip prostheses. A review: see comments. Acta Orthop Scand 1991;62(5):500-8.
  20. Mogensen B, Ekelund L, Hansson L I, Lidgren L, Selvik G. Surface replacement of the hip in chronic arthritis. A clinical, radiographic and roentgen-stereophotogrammetric evaluation. Acta Orthop Scand 1982;53(6):929-36.
  21. Nebergall A Rolfson O Rubash H Malchau H Troelsen A Greene M. Stable Fixation of a Cementless, Proximally Coated, Double Wedged, Double Tapered Femoral Stem in Total Hip Arthroplasty: A 5-Year Radiostereometric Analysis. J Arthroplasty 2016;31(6): 1267-74
  22. Nieuwenhuijse M Valstar E Nelissen R. 5-year clinical and radiostereometric analysis (RSA) follow-up of 39 CUT femoral neck total hip prostheses in young osteoarthritis patients. Acta Orthop 2012;83 (4): 334-341.
  23. Nilsson KG, Kärrholm J. RSA in the assessment of aseptic loosening. Editorial. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1996;78-B(1):1-3
  24. Nistor L, Blaha JD, Kjellström U, Selvik G. In vivo measurements of relative motion between an uncemented femoral total hip component and the femur by roentgen sterephotogrammetric analysis. Clin Orthop 1991;269:220-227
  25. ‘Nistor L, Blaha D, Källström U, Selvik G. Roentgen-stereophotogrammetric analysis RSA of the LMPCH prosthesis. Acta Orthop Scand 1987;58(4):445.
  26. Nivbrant B, Kärrholm J, Önsten I, Carlsson Å, Snorrason F. Migration of porous press-fit cups in hip revision arthroplasty. A radiostereometric 2 year follow up study of 60 hips. J Arthroplasy. 1996;11(4):390-396.
  27. Nivbrant B, Kärrholm J. Migration and wear of hydroxyapatite-coated press-fit cups in revision hip arthroplasty. A radiostereometric study. J Arthroplasty 1997;12(8):904-912.
  28. Nivbrant B, Kärrholm J, Söderlund P. Increased migration of the SHP prosthesis: radiostereometric comparison with the Lubinus SP2 design in 40 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1999 Dec;70(6):569-77.
  29. Nivbrant B, Kärrholm J, Röhrl S, Hassander H, Wesslen B. Bone cement with reduced proportion of monomer in total hip arthroplasty: preclinical evaluation and randomized study of 47 cases with 5 years’ follow-up. Acta Orthop Scand. 2001 Dec;72(6):572-84.
  30. Ornstein E, Franzen H, Johnsson R, Sundberg M. Radiostereometric analysis in hip revision surgery – optimal time for index examination: 6 patients revised with impacted allografts and cement followed weekly for 6 weeks. Acta Orthop Scand. 2000 Aug;71(4):360-4.
  31. Ornstein E, Atroshi I, Franzen H, Johnsson R, Sandquist P, Sundberg M. Results of hip revision using the Exeter stem, impacted allograft bone, and cement. Clin Orthop. 2001 Aug;(389):126-33.
  32. Ornstein E. Hip revisions with impacted morselized allograft bone and cement. Patient outcome, prosthetic fixation and risks. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 2002 Dec;73(306):1-66. No abstract
    available.
  33. Ornstein E, Franzen H, Johnsson R, Stefansdottir A, Sundberg M, Tagil M. Hip revision with impacted morselized allografts: unrestricted weight-bearing and restricted weight-bearing have
    similar effect on migration A radiostereometry analysis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2003 Jul;123(6):261-7
  34. Ornstein E, Atroshi I, Franzen H, Johnsson R, Sandquist P, Sundberg M. Early complications after one hundred and forty-four consecutive hip revisions with impacted morselized allograft bone and cement.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2002 Aug;84-A(8):1323-8.
  35. Snorrason F, Kärrholm J. Primary migration of fully-threaded acetabular prostheses. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 1990;72(4):647-652.
  36. Snorrason F. Kärrholm J. Primary stability of revision total hip arthroplasty: A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. J Arthroplasty 1990;5:217-229.
  37. Snorrason F, Kärrholm J. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) of acetabular prostheses. Scientific Exhibit. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 57th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, 1990.
  38. Snorrason F, Kärrholm J, Holmgren C. Fixation of cemented acetabular prostheses. J Arthroplasty 1993;8:83-93.
  39. Schewelov T Sanzén L Börlin N Markusson P Önsten I, Accuracy of radiographic and radiostereometric wear measurement of different hip prostheses – An experimental study. Acta Orthop Scand 2004,75 (6): 691-700.
  40. Söballe K, Toksvig-Larsen S, Gelineck et al. Migration of hydroxyapatite coated femoral prostheses. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 1993;75-B:681-7.
  41. Thanner J, Freij-Larsson C, Kärrholm J, Malchau H, Wesslén B. Evaluation of Boneloc®. Clinical and mechanical properties, and a randomized clinical study of 30 total hip arthroplasties. Acta Orthop Scand 1995;66(3):207-214.
  42. Thanner J, Kärrholm J, Malchau H, Wallinder L, Herberts P. Migration of Press-fit Cups Fixed with Poly-L-Lactic Acid or Titanium Screws: A Randomized Study using Radiostereometry. J Orthop Res. 1996;14:895-900
  43. Thanner J, Karrholm J, Herberts P, Malchau H. Porous cups with and without hydroxylapatitetricalcium phosphate coating: 23 matched pairs evaluated with radiostereometry.J Arthroplasty 1999 Apr;14(3):266-71
  44. Thanner J, Kärrholm J, Herberts P, Malchau H. Hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate-coated cups with and without screw fixation: a randomized study of 64 hips. J Arthroplasty. 2000
    Jun;15(4):405-12.
  45. Thanner J. The acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty. Evaluation of different fixation principles. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 1999 Aug;286:1-41.
  46. Tsukanaka M Röhrl S von Schewelov T Nordsletten L. Identification of femoral head center of bipolar hemiarthroplasy in radiostereometric analysis with elementary geometrical shape models. J Biomech 2016;49(3): 469-73
  47. von Schewelov T Sanzén L Börlin N Markusson P Önsten I. Accuracy of radiographic and radiostereometric wear measurement of different hip prostheses. Acta Orthop 2004;75 (6): 1-1
  48. Wykman A, Selvik G, Goldie I. Subsidence of the femoral component in the noncemented total hip. A roentgen-stereophotogrammetric analysis. Acta Orthop Scand 1988;59(6):635-7.
  49. Wykman A, Lundberg A. Subsidence of porous coated noncemented femoral components in total hip arthroplasty: A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. J Arthroplasty 1992;7(2):197-200
  50. Önsten I, Snorrason F, Borssén B, Kärrholm J, Sandzén L. Uncemented press-fit acetabular prostheses in revision hip arthroplasty. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). SOF Trollhättan 1991. Acta Orthop Scand 1991;62(Suppl 246):8, 1991
  51. Önsten I, Carlsson Å, Ohlin A, Nilsson JÅ. Migration of acetabular component inserted with and without cement in one stage bilateral hip arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1994;76-A:185-194.
  52. Önsten I, Bengnér U, Besjakov J, . Socket migration after Charnley arthroplasty in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. J Bone Joint Surg 1993;75- B:677-80.
  53. Önsten I, Åkesson K, Besjakov J, Obrant KJ. Migration of the Charnley stem in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. J Bone Jonit Surg 1995;77-B(1):18-22
  54. Önsten I, Carlsson Å. Cemented vs. uncemented socket in hip arthroplasty. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study of 60 randomized hips followed for 2 years. Acta Orthop Scand
    1994;65:517-21
  55. Önsten I, Carlsson Å, Besjakov J. Wear in uncemented porous and cemented polyethylene sockets. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 1998;80-B:345-350

Knee

  1. Adalberth G, Nilsson KG, Byström S, Kolstad K, Mallmin H, Milbrink J. Stability assessment of a moderately conforming all-polyethylene tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective RSA study with 2 years of follow-up of the Kinemax Plus design. Am J Knee Surg. 1999 Fall;12(4):233-40.
  2. Adalberth G, Nilsson KG, Byström S, Kolstad K, Milbrink J. Low-conforming all-polyethylene tibial component not inferior to metal-backed component in cemented total knee arthroplasty:
    prospective, randomised radiostereometric analysis study of the AGC total knee prosthesis. J Arthroplasty. 2000 Sep;15(6):783-92.
  3. Adalberth G, Nilsson KG, Kärrholm J, Hassander H. Fixation of the tibial component using CMW-1 or Palacos bone cement with gentamicin: similar outcome in a randomized adiostereometric study of 51 total knee arthroplasties. Acta Orthop Scand. 2002 Oct;73(5):531-8.
  4. Adalberth G, Nilsson KG, Byström S, Kolstad K, Milbrink J. All-polyethylene versus metal-backed and stemmed tibial components in cemented total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomised RSA study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001 Aug;83(6):825-31.
  5. Albrektsson BEJ, Ryd L, Carlsson LV, Freeman MAR m fl. The effect of a stem on the tibial component of knee arthroplasty. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric study of uncemented tibial
    components in the Freeman-Samuelson knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg 1990;72-B:252-8.
  6. Albrektsson B E, Carlsson L V, Freeman M A, Herberts P, Ryd L. Proximally cemented versus uncemented Freeman-Samuelson knee arthroplasty. A prospective randomised study. J Bone Joint Surg 1992;74(2):233-8.
  7. Hansson U Ryd L Toksvig-Larsen S, A randomised RSA study of Peri-Apatite™ HA coating of a total knee prosthesis. The Knee 2008:15 (3): 211-216.
  8. Hyldahl HC, Regner L, Carlsson L, Karrholm J, Weidenhielm L. Does metal backing improve fixation of tibial component in unicondylar knee arthroplasty? A randomized radiostereometric analysis. J Arthroplasty 2001 Feb;16(2):174-9
  9. Hilding M, Aspenberg P. Local peroperative treatment with a bisphosphonate improves the fixation of total knee prostheses: A randomized, double-blind radiostereometric study of 50 patients. Acta Orthop 2007;78(6): 795-79.
  10. Hilding M, Lanshammar H, Ryd L. Knee joint load and tibial component loosening. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry and gait analysis in 45 osteoarthrosis patients before and after total knee arthroplasty. J Bone Joint Surg, 1996 ;78-B(1):66-73.
  11. Hilding M, Yuan X, Ryd L. The stability of three different cementless tibial components. A randomized radiostereomethric study in 45 knee arthroplasty patients. Acta Orthop Scand, 1995;66(1):21-27.
  12. Hilding M, Ryd L, Toksvig-Larsen S, Aspenberg P. Clodronate prevents prosthetic migration: a randomized radiostereometric study of 50 total knee patients. Acta Orthop Scand. 2000
    Dec;71(6):553-7.
  13. Nilsson K G, Kärrholm J, Ekelund L, Magnusson P. Evaluation of micromotion in cemented vs uncemented knee arthroplasty in osteoarthrosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Randomised study using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. J Arthroplasty 1991:6(3):265-278
  14. Nilsson KG, Kärrholm J. Increased varus-valgus tilt of screw-fixated knee prostheses. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric study of cemented vs. cementless tibial components. J Arthroplasty.
    1993;8(5):529-540.
  15. Nilsson KG, Brobäck LG, Kärrholm J. Does a stem on the tibial component improve fixation of uncemented Freeman-Samuelson knee prosthesis. SOF Sundsvall. Acta Orthop Scand
    1989;60(Suppl):34
  16. Nilsson KG, Kärrholm J. Increased subsidence of stemmed cementless Tricon-M knee prostheses. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of cemented vs uncemented tibial components. Am J Knee Surg 1992;5(4):174-183
  17. Nilsson KG, Kärrholm J, Linder L. Micromotion of the femoral component in Miller-Galante knee arthroplasty. Cemented vs. cementless fixation. J Orthop Res.1995;13:347-56.
  18. Nilsson KG, Cajander S, Kärrholm J. Early failure of hydroxyapatite-coating in total hip arthroplasty. Case report. Acta Orthop Scand. 1994;65(2):212-14.
  19. Nilsson KG, Kärrholm J, Carlsson L, Dalén T. Hydroxyapatite coating versus cemented fixation of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty. Prospective randomized comparison of
    hydroxyapatite-coated and cemented tibial components with 5-year follow-up using radiostereometry. J of Arthroplasty 1999;14(1):9-20.
  20. Pijls B Valstar E Kaptein B Nelissen R. Differences in long-term fixation between mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing knee prostheses at ten to 12 years’ follow-up: A single-blinded randomised controlled radiostereometric trial. Bone Joint J 2012: 94-B(10): 1366-1371.
  21. Regner L, Carlsson L, Karrholm J, Herberts P. Ceramic coating improves tibial component fixation in total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty 1998 Dec;13(8):882-9
  22. Regner L, Carlsson L, Karrholm J, Herberts P. Tibial component fixation in porous- and hydroxyapatite-coated total knee arthroplasty: a radiostereo metric evaluation of migration and
    inducible displacement after 5 years. J Arthroplasty 2000 Sep;15(6):681-9
  23. Ryd L. Micromotion in knee arthroplasty. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of tibial component fixation. Acta Orthop Scand 1986;57(Suppl 220):1-80.
  24. Ryd L. Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric analysis of prosthetic fixation in the hip and knee joint. Clin Ortop 1992;(276):56-65
  25. Ryd L. The role of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) in knee surgery. AM J Knee Surg. 1992;5(1):44-54.
  26. Ryd L, Boegård T, Egund N, Lindstrand A, Selvik G, Thorngren K G. Migration of the tibial component in successful unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. A clinical, radiographic and
    roentgen-stereophotogrammetric study. Acta Orthop Scand 1983;54(3):408-16.
  27. Ryd L, Carlsson L, Herberts P,. Micromotion of the MILLER-GALANTE tibial component. An in- vivo roentgen stereophotogrammetric study. Clin Orthop, 1993;295:218-225
  28. Ryd L,, Egund N. Subsidence of tibial components in knee arthroplasty. A comparison between conventional radiography and roentgen stereophotogrammetry. Invest Radiol 1995;30(4):396-400
  29. Ryd L, Lindstrand A, Rosenquist R, Selvik G. Tibial component fixation in knee arthroplasty. An in vivo roentgen stereophotogrammetric study of cemented metal backed devices. Clin Orthop. 1986;213:141-149.
  30. Ryd L, Lindstrrand A, Rosenquist R, Selvik G. Micromotion of all-polyethylene prosthetic components in total knee replacements. A stereophotogrammetric analysis of migration and inducible displacements. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 1987a;106:82-88
  31. Ryd L, Lindstrand A, Stenström A, Selvik G. PCA tricompartmental tibial components: relation between position and micromotion. Clin Orthop. 1990;251:189-197.
  32. Ryd L, Lindstrand A, Stenström A, Selvik G. Cold-flow of unicompartmental tibial components. Acta Orthop Scand 1990a;61(1):21-25
  33. Ryd L, Albrektsson BEJ, Herberts P, Lindstrand A, Selvik G. Micromotion of non-cemented Freeman-Samuelson knee prostheses in Gonarthrosis. A roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of eight successful cases. Clin Orthop 1988;229:205-212
  34. Ryd L, Albrektsson BEJ, Carlsson L, Herberts P, Lindstrand A, Regnér L, Dansgaard F, Toksvig-Larsen S. Roentgenstereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA) as a predictor of mechanical
    loosening. J Bone Joint Surg,1995;77-B(3):377-383
  35. Ryd L. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis of prosthetic fixation in the hip and knee joint. Clin Orthop 1992;(276):56-65.
  36. Ryd L, Toksvig-Larsen. Early postoperative fixation of tibial components: An in vivo roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. J. Orthop. Res 1993;11:142-8.
  37. Saari T, Uvehammer J, Carlsson LV, Herberts P, Regner L, Kärrholm J. Kinematics of three variations of the Freeman-Samuelson total knee prosthesis. Clin Orthop. 2003 May;(410):235-47.
  38. Toksvig-Larsen S, Ryd L, Lindstrand A. Fixation of the tibial component in knee arthroplasty after six weeks. Int Orthop SICOT 1995;19:89-93.
  39. Toksvig-Larsen S, Magyar G, Önsten I, Ryd L, Lindstrand A. Fixation of the tibial component of total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy. J Bone Joint Surg 1998;80-B:295-297.
  40. Toksvig-Larsen S, Ryd L, Lindstrand A. Early inducible displacement of tibial components in total knee prostheses inserted with and without cement: a randomized study with roentgen
    stereophotogrammetric analysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1998 Jan;80(1):83-9
  41. Uvehammer J, Regner L, Kärrholm J. Flat vs. concave tibial joint surface in total knee arthroplasty: randomised evaluation of 39 cases using radiostereometry. Acta Orthop Scand. 2001
    Jun;72(3):257-65.
  42. Uvehammer J, Kärrholm J, Regner L, Carlsson L, Herberts P. Concave versus posterior-stabilized tibial joint surface in total knee arthroplasty: randomized evaluation of 47 knees. J Arthroplasty. 2001 Jan;16(1):25-32.
  43. Uvehammer J, Kärrholm J. Inducible displacements of cemented tibial components during weightbearing and knee extension observations during dynamic radiostereometry related to joint
    positions and 2 years history of migration in 16 TKR. J Orthop Res. 2001 Nov;19(6):1168-77.
  44. Uvehammer J. Knee joint kinematics, fixation and function related to joint area design in total knee arthroplasty. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl. 2001 Feb;72(299):1-52.
  45. van Loon CJ, Kyriazopoulos A, Verdonschot N, de Waal Malefijt MC, Huiskes R, Buma P. The role of femoral stem extension in total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop. 2000 Sep;(378):282-9.
  46. Valstar E, Kaptein B, Nelissen R. Radiostereometry and new prostheses. Acta Orthop 2012;83(2): 103-104
  47. Önsten I, Nordqvist A, Carlsson ÅS, Besjakov J, Shott S. Hydroxyapatite augumentation of the porous coating improves fixation of tibial component. J Bone Joint Surg 1998;80-B:417-425.

Shoulder

  1. Jonsson E, Mjöberg B, Rydholm U, Selvik G, Lidgren L. Humeral cup fixation in rheumatoid shoulders. Roentgen stereophotogrammetry of 12 cases. Acta Orthop Scand 1990;61(2):116-119.
X-ray Markers suitable for RSA or Radio Stereometric Analysis and insertion into e.g. PEEK materials

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X-medics offer a wide range of tantalum markers and marker beads suitable for x-ray marking in roentgen-stereophotogrammetric or radio stereommetric analysis studies.

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Disclaimer

Copyright (c) by X-medics. Disclaimer & policies: By using X-medics’ Site, you consent to the collection and use of your information by X-medics as set forth in the policy. X-medics is a raw material supplier only and cannot be held responsibly from any use of products in a specific application. Products are for professional use only. All quotes and sales by X-medics are made in accordance with X-medics’ general conditions. X-medics policy concerning Conflict free sourcing. Please contact us with us with any questions!

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